I thought I have to make this as I come from the Philippines and still consider it as my home even thought I reside now in Europe for 10 long years. I've made a lot of photos about the Philippines food and related sceneries and will be adding them as much as I can: I am hoping that a visitor of my food glossary will make one understand what is Filipino and the Cuisine of the Philippines.
LIST OF THE PHILIPPINES COOKING METHODS and RELATED TERMS IN FILIPINO (TAGALOG DIALECT)
Herewith is a list of Filipino (Tagalog) words of the cooking methods used in the Philippines to better understand how we as Filipinos prepare our dishes.
All words in brackets are in Filipino (Tagalog language) translations.
Adobo/Inadobo − cooked in vinegar (Suka), oil (Mantika), garlic (Bawang) and soy sauce (Toyo), as in Adobong Baboy. Vegetables can also be cooked in vinegar, such as Talong , Sitaw (Adobong Sitaw or Inadobong Sitaw).
Ginisa/Gisado also spelled Guinisa/Guisado - when sauteed (Gisa) with thinly sliced garlic (Bawang), chopped onions (Sibuyas) and/or tomatoes (Kamatis) , and/or ginger (Luya). Many Filipino housewives press the garlic first before cutting in thin slices
Nilaga/Linaga/Laga/Palaga − boiled/braised. Examples are Nilagang Baboy or Nilagang Mani (Boiled Peanuts)
Paksiw/Pinaksiw - when it is cooked with Vinegar (Suka in Filipino). Example is Paksiw or Pinaksiw na Bangus (Vinegared Milkfish)
Ginataan/Ginatan also spelled Guinataan/Guinatan and also called „sa Gata” - when food is cooked with coconut milk (Gata in Filipino).
Sinigang/Sigang – when boiled with souring agents or in a sour broth, usually with a tamarind base. Other common souring agents used include Tomatoes, Kamias , Guava, raw mangoes, Santol, Calamansi (juice) also known as Calamondin in other parts of the country.
Inihaw/Ihaw − anything that is grilled over coals, usually in charcoals (Uling). This is the Philippines version of the Barbecue, as in Inihaw na Baboy (Grilled Pork), Inihaw na Isda (Grilled Fish), etc.
Pinirito/Pinrito/Prito - when fried or deep fried in hot or boiling cooking oil (. As in Pritong Galunggong, Pritong Isda
Torta/Tinorta/Patorta– to cook with scrambled eggs (Binating Itlog) , that is similar to an omelette. Example of this is Tortang Talong. My mom's favorite recipe is the Tortang Patatas, the very simple dish made by my mom which we bring for lunch at school made mainly from scrambled eggs and diced Poatoes (Patatas)
Relleno/Relyeno – stuffed/filled, as in Relyenong/Rellenong Bangus and Relyenong/Rellenong Talong
Daing/Dinaing/Padaing − marinated with garlic, vinegar, and finely ground black peppers and salt . Sometimes dried and usually fried before eating. There are Daing which are not marinated at all. The fish are clean and butterflied then dried under the sun
Pangat/Pinangat” − boiled in salted water with souring agents , such as tomatoes or Kamias.
Tinapa/Tapa/Tinaphan – dried and smoked. Tapa (dried meat) refers to meat treated in this manner, mostly marinated and then dried and fried afterwards. Tinapa/Tinaphan is almost exclusively a used term for smoked fish. My mom used to make Tapang Baka, thinly sliced tender meat of beef which she marinated first in vinagar and garlic, then fried afterwards, the best.
Sarciado/Sarsiado – cooked with a thick sauce, usually made from chopped onions and tomatoes (tomato sauce in can can also be used) and thinly sliced garlic or ginger . Sarsa is the Filipino (Tagalog) word for Sauce. Sarciadong Isda is one of the best dishes my European friends love the most. Unfortunately, I used fresh filleted fish, such as Cod and Pangasius
Binagoongan/sa Bagoong − cooked with fermented Shrimp paste (Bagoong Alamang) also called Guinamos/Ginamos in some parts of the country, particularly the Visayas Region
Babad/Binabad/Ibinabad − to marinate. Some housewives marinate pork before grilling (Ihaw) or marinate milkfish (Daing) before frying. Often the marinate consist of garlic, vinegar and soy sauce or Calamansi juice instead of Vinegar
Banli/Binanlian/Pabanli − means „ to blanch“. Usually, we used this to make salads from fresh young/tender leaves of Sayote, Sweet Potatoes (Kamote Tops) and Ampalaya leaves (Bitter Gourd leaves). Some fresh noodles can also be blanch by soaking in boiling water to make Sopas (Soup)
Sopas– anything that is made into a soup. Sopas na Manok is the best example
Binalot – literally translated as “wrapped.” Generally refers to dishes wrapped in banana leaves, pandan leaves, or even aluminum foil. The wrapper is generally inedible which is in contrast to Lumpia which is always wrapped in edible rice or flour wrapper.
Buro/Binuro refers to anything that is fermented. Burong Mangga is an example which is made from mangoes pickled in salt. Another example is Burong Talangka refers to fermented river crabs.
Halabos/Hinalabos” – mostly for shellfish. Seafood/shellfish which are steamed in their own juices and sometimes carbonated soda, often 7-Up or Sprite. Best example of this is the Halabos na Hipon. Means scalded or half cooked in water
Hinurno – baked in an oven or roasted.
Sinaing refers to boiled/steamed/braised . Usually refers to Sinaing na Bigas (Boiled/Steamed rice), but can also refers to steamiedbraisied fish, as in Sinaing na Tulingan (braised bullet tuna) which is popular in some Tagalog Regions of the country like Laguna.
Kinilaw/Kilawin− raw fish or seafood marinated in vinegar or calamansi juice along with garlic, onions, ginger, tomato, peppers. Kinilaw na Isda, Kinilaw na Hipon is the best Kinilaw I have ever tasted in Iloilo
Nilasing − cooked with an alcoholic beverage , usually with beer. Best example is the Nilasing na Hipon made from freshly caught shrimps cooked with beer.
Lechon/Litson/Nilechon − roasted on a spit (whole pig skewered in a bamboo and slowly cooked over flaming charcoals). Lechon used to refer to whole roasted pig , but nowadays there are also Lechong Manok made of cleaned whole chicken cooked in a roaster or over charcoal.
Lumpia – savory food wrapped with an edible wrapper.
Minatamis/Matamis− sweetened. Matamis na Bao is a local spread made from brown sugar and Coconut Milk (Gata) . Minatamis na Saging (sweetened Saba) is another example
Pinakbet/Pakbet − to cook with assorted vegetables , usually with Sitaw (stringyardlong beans), Squash/Pumpkin (Kalabasa), Eggplant (Talong/Aubergine), and Bitter Melon/Gourd (Ampalaya) among others and Fermented fish (Bagoong Isda).
Palaman/Pinalaman − “filled” as in siopao, though “palaman” also refers to the filling in or a spread for a sandwich. Peanut Butter is a favorite in the Philippines
Pinakuluan – boiled.
Sinangag - almost always associated with left-over rice fried with pressed garlic and salt in little amount of oil. Sinangag refers also called garlic fried rice. Can also refer to Sinangag na Hipon (dried small shrimps cooked with garlic)
Binati/Binate– scrambled, as in Binating Itlog or scrambled egg.
Giniling - is Minced or Ground in English. Anything that is grinded or minced in called Giniling, as in Giniling na Baboy (Ground Pork) or Giniling na Malagkit (Ground Glutinous Rice)
Sinampalukan – when something is cooked in or with young Tamarind leaves and green Tamarind fruits
Tinosta/Tostado – anything that is toasted.
Turon/Turrones – wrapped with an edible wrapper, as in Turon made from Saging na Saba (Plantain). Turrones is dessert counterpart, an example is Turrones de Mani (sweetened peanuts)
Hilaw means unripe. There are certain fruits in the Philippines which are eaten as „Hilaw“ , like Mangoes (Mangga), Papaya and Jackfruit (Langka) . Means green, raw, unripe or undercooked (example is an undercooked rice) . These 3 fruits can also be eaten as Hinog and Manibalang
Hinog – when fruit is already „ripe“ or „mature“. Examples are also Mangoes, Papaya and Jackfruit and many other fruits which can be eaten as is and sweet.
Manibalang – when the fruit is in the stage where it is between unripe and ripe/mature. That is „almost ripe/nearly ripe“. Papaya and Mangoes which are Manibalang are good for making savory salads
Sariwa – fresh (for fruits and vegetables), raw (for meats). Also used for uncooked food in general, like the Lumpiang Sariwa where the rolls is not fried, but can also be fried as in Pritong Lumpia/Lumpiang Toge. Means unripe or raw
Bilasa – when food, such as fish, seafood, seashell and meat are no longer fresh (Sariwa). It means food are no longer fresh, spoiled, stale or rotten
Bubot – means fruits which are still immature or unripe and is not ready to be picked from the tree and eaten
Papaitan/Pinapaitan – when innards (Laman-Loob) and tripe (Goto) of goat or ox/cow is cooked in their bile as flavoring which is bitter in taste (Mapait), hence it is called Pinapaitan or Papaitan
Tinola – anything cooked very simple with ginger (Luya) and onions (Sibuyas) and always with the leaves of the Bird's eye chili peppers (Dahon ng Sili) or Moringa/ Horseradish Leaves (Dahon ng Malunggay), as in Tinolang Tulya (gingered-based soup of Clams). The most well-known Tinola dish , however is Tinolang Manok (gingered-based soup of Chicken meat)
Tuyo – can refer to fresh whole fish properly cleaned (gutted), salted and dried usually under the sun in many rural/provincial areas in the country.
Suki – refers to a loyal and regular/frequent customer, a customer of long standing. My oldest sister is a „Suki“ of only one beef butcher in the market in Carmona, Cavite where she fequently and regularly buys their food for a week.
Palengke – a big market place, a marketplace, most often called „wet market(s)“ maybe because they are always wet from the water used to clean fish and seafoods and clean the cutting boards or containers of these goods.
Ulam – means dish, viand, often refers to the main dish of a meal eaten as always with rice. We say our „Ulam“ for today is Adobong Baboy“.
Kanin - that refers to cooked (boiled/steamed) rice which is cooked with the Ulam (viand) and in the Philippines, Kanin is always eaten from breakfast, lunch and dinner. Some are even eating Bahaw (cold cooked rice) during snacks
Bigas - refers to rice of any kind. In the Philippines we have brown and black rice, ordinary rice and glutinous rice (Malagkit na Bigas).
Lugaw/Nilugaw – rice (regular or glutinous) or corn porridge/gruel. Rice is cooked with plenty of water until they are soft and cooked and a bit soupy. With or without meat or anything and can be eaten only with little amount of salt or sugar. Arroz Caldo is a kind of Lugaw in the Philippines.
Karenderia/Karihan/Karinderya/Carienderia – a place that serve pre-cooked dishes or food: Refers to small store where pre-cooked food are sold and served
Turo-Turo or Turu-Turo – refers to a small shop/restaurant where pre-cooked food are for sale by pointing out what one wants/desires. From the word „Turo“ - pointing/point. Pre-cooked food/dishes are always displayed in pots and pans or any container for that matter .
Pulutan – any food cooked or uncooked that is served during a drinking session (with a beer or wine). Examples are Nuts (mostly Adobong Mani), Kornik (fried garlicky corn kernels), slices of green mangoes. Chicharon Bulaklak (crispy deep-fried pork intestines)
Chicharon – deep-fried pork rind or chicken skin. Also called Cracklings. In the Philippines, there are many kinds of Chicharon (Bulaklak, Bituka, Baboy , etc) and can be served as snacks or „Pulutan“. It can also be spelled as Tsitsaron, but seldom spelled this way.
Panderia/Panaderya – a local bakeshop, bakery or a bakeshouse where bakegoods, such as bread, cakes and pastries are produced/baked/made and sold. A visit to a local Panaderia in the Philippines is a joy for me. It brings back so many wonderful memories
Please visit "My Blog" (http://glorious-food-glossary.blogspot.com) for pictures of some of the terms listed here as I will post them there one by one and as time goes by
There might be other cooking and related terms which I can remember as time goes by and will be adding them later. I enjoyed doing this article. It brought me back to my home sweet home, the Philippines when I was young. It is Easter Sunday, April 1, 2018. It is a joy to do this article spending a lonely Easter Sunday away from my only son somewhere in Europe.