Deutsch: Gluten / Español: Gluten / Português: Glúten / Français: Gluten / Italiano: Glutine

Gluten is a group of proteins found in wheat and other related grains, including barley, rye, and oats. It provides elasticity and structure to dough, giving bread and other baked goods their chewy texture.


Gluten is composed of two main proteins: gliadin and glutenin. These proteins are found in the endosperm of the wheat kernel and are responsible for the viscoelastic properties of dough. When flour is mixed with water, gluten proteins form a network that traps air bubbles, allowing dough to rise and maintain its shape. This property is crucial for the production of bread, pasta, and many other baked goods.

Gluten is not only important for the texture and structure of food but also plays a significant role in the culinary world due to its ability to stabilize and thicken sauces and soups. However, gluten can pose health issues for some individuals, leading to conditions such as celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

Application Areas

Gluten is utilized in various food products and culinary processes, including:

  • Baking: Essential in making bread, cakes, pastries, and other baked goods. It provides the elasticity and chewiness that characterize these products.
  • Pasta: Gives pasta its firm and elastic texture, allowing it to hold its shape when cooked.
  • Thickening Agent: Used in soups, sauces, and gravies to provide a smooth and consistent texture.
  • Processed Foods: Often found in foods like sauces, dressings, and processed meats as a stabilizer and texture enhancer.

Well-Known Examples

Some notable examples of gluten-containing foods include:

  • Bread: Most types of bread, including white, whole wheat, and sourdough, contain gluten.
  • Pasta: Traditional Italian pasta made from durum wheat semolina.
  • Baked Goods: Cakes, cookies, muffins, and pastries.
  • Cereals: Many breakfast cereals contain wheat or other gluten-containing grains.
  • Beer: Traditionally brewed with barley, a gluten-containing grain.

Treatment and Risks

While gluten is harmless for most people, it can cause serious health issues for others:

  • Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Symptoms include digestive issues, fatigue, and nutrient deficiencies. The only effective treatment is a strict gluten-free diet.
  • Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: Causes symptoms similar to celiac disease without the autoimmune response. Individuals with this condition also benefit from avoiding gluten.
  • Wheat Allergy: An allergic reaction to proteins found in wheat, including gluten. Symptoms can range from mild (hives, itching) to severe (anaphylaxis). Avoiding wheat and gluten-containing products is necessary for those with this allergy.

Gluten-Free Alternatives

For those who need or choose to avoid gluten, there are several alternatives:

  • Gluten-Free Flours: Made from grains and seeds such as rice, almond, coconut, and quinoa.
  • Gluten-Free Bread and Pasta: Specially formulated products made without gluten-containing ingredients.
  • Naturally Gluten-Free Foods: Fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, dairy, and legumes are naturally free from gluten.

Similar Terms

  • Gliadin: One of the main protein components of gluten, responsible for the extensibility of dough.
  • Glutenin: The other main protein component of gluten, contributing to the elasticity and strength of dough.
  • Prolamins: A group of plant storage proteins, including gliadin, found in grains such as wheat, barley, and rye.



Gluten is a protein complex found in wheat and related grains that is essential for the texture and structure of many baked goods and other foods. While it plays a crucial role in culinary applications, gluten can cause adverse health effects in individuals with celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or wheat allergies. Understanding gluten's properties and its impact on health allows for better food choices and accommodations for those who need to avoid it.


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