Deutsch: Braten / Español: Freír / Português: Fritar / Français: Faire frire / Italiano: Friggere

Frying is a cooking process wherein food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, heated to temperatures typically between 175°C (350°F) and 190°C (375°F). This method achieves a unique combination of crispy exterior and tender interior by dehydrating the food's surface and sometimes triggering chemical reactions like the Maillard reaction, which enhances flavor.


Frying is one of the quickest and most popular methods of cooking food, noted for the delightful texture and flavor it imparts. This cooking technique involves the transfer of heat to a food item through a hot liquid with a high fat content, such as oil or butter. The high temperatures involved can cook the food quickly, making it a prevalent choice in fast-food preparations and home cooking.

The science behind frying is based on the principles of heat transfer via a liquid medium and the chemical reactions that occur at high temperatures. For example, the Maillard reaction adds complexity and a desirable taste to fried foods. Frying can be categorized mainly into deep frying and shallow frying, where the depth of oil used can vary significantly.

The history of frying is deep-rooted in ancient cuisines, including Egyptian and Roman meals, where various techniques of frying were already in use. In modern times, it has evolved with the advent of cooking appliances such as deep fryers that regulate oil temperature more safely and efficiently.

Application Areas

In culinary practices, frying is versatile, used in various dishes worldwide:

Well-Known Examples

Internationally, many cultures have dishes centered around frying:

  • American Fast Food: Iconic for fried items like hamburgers and fried chicken.
  • Asian Cuisine: Known for stir-fries that use high heat for a quick and nutritious meal.
  • European Treats: Such as Spanish churros and British fish-and-chips.

Treatment and Risks

While delicious, frequent consumption of fried foods can have health implications, including an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity. This is due to the high caloric content of fried foods as well as unhealthy fats that can arise from using oil at high temperatures repeatedly.


Here are a few examples of how frying can be used in recipes:

  • Basic Fried Chicken:
    • Ingredients: Chicken pieces, flour, spices (salt, pepper, paprika), eggs, milk, and oil for frying.
    • Method: Coat chicken in flour and spices, dip in beaten eggs mixed with milk, coat again in flour, and fry in hot oil until golden and cooked through.
  • Simple French Fries:
    • Ingredients: Potatoes, oil, and salt.
    • Method: Slice potatoes, rinse in water, dry, fry in oil until golden, drain, and season with salt.

Similar Terms

  • Sautéing
  • Pan frying
  • Stir frying
  • Deep frying
  • Roasting


Frying is a culinary technique that involves cooking food by submerging it in hot fat. It is widely used across various cuisines due to its ability to quickly cook food while enhancing flavor and texture. Despite its popularity, it is important to be mindful of the potential health risks associated with regularly eating fried foods.


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